【双语阅读】野火越发造成不良空气

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Wildfires are increasingly contributing to unhealthy air

野火越发造成不良空气

 

本文英文部分来自421日的美国国家公共电台(NPR),中文部分由世诺留学提供,供英语学习爱好者使用,如有侵权请联系删除。

 

Despite decades of environmental efforts, over 40% of Americans — more than 137 million people — live in cities and states with poor air quality, a new report says. And, in addition to cars and factories, wildfires are increasingly contributing to unhealthy air.

一份新报告称,尽管几十年来进行了环保工作,但超过40%的美国人——超过1.37亿人——生活在空气质量差的城市和州。此外,除了汽车和工厂,野火也越来越多地造成不健康的空气。

 

For the past 22 years, the American Lung Association has produced its annual State of the Air report, which analyzes the air quality on a local level for communities across the country. This year's study found that more Americans were exposed to unhealthy air, at times deemed hazardous, compared to previous years.

在过去22年里,美国肺脏协会(American Lung Association)每年都会发布一份《空气状况报告》,分析全国各地社区的地方空气质量。今年的研究发现,与前几年相比,更多的美国人暴露在不健康的甚至有时被视作有害的空气中。

 

In fact, more than 63 million people lived in counties that had dangerous levels of deadly particulate matter pollution — an increase of nearly 9 million over the last year. These particles are made up of dust, ash, soot and metals. They come from gas-powered vehicles and industrial plants, however in more recent years, dangerous spikes in particulate matter readings are coming from wildfires, which are burning hotter, faster and longer.

事实上,超过6300万人生活在致命颗粒物污染严重的郡,比去年增加了近900万人。这些颗粒由灰尘、灰烬、烟尘和金属组成。它们来自燃气驱动的车辆和工业工厂,然而近年来,颗粒物读数的危险峰值来自野火,野火燃烧得更热、更快、更长。

 

"The three years covered by [the report] ranked among the seven hottest years on record globally," the study said. "Spikes in particle pollution and high ozone days related to wildfires and extreme heat are putting millions more people at risk and adding challenges to the work that states and cities are doing across the nation to clean up air pollution."

该研究称:“报告涵盖的三年是全球有记录以来最热的七年之一。”。“与野火、酷热有关的颗粒物污染和高臭氧日的峰值使数百万人处于危险之中,并给美国各州和城市正在进行的空气污染清理工作增加了挑战。”

 

Although wildfires take place all over the United States, the overwhelmingly majority happen in the West. That is why, according to the report, all but one of the top 25 worst cities with particulate matter pollution are west of the Rocky Mountains. The eastern outlier is Pittsburgh, which has historically had poor air quality because of its industrial facilities. That said, the city has been cleaning up its act and saw its lowest levels ever in this year's study.

尽管野火在美国各地都有发生,但绝大多数发生在西部。这就是为什么根据该报告,在颗粒物污染最严重的25个城市中,除了一个以外,其他所有城市都位于落基山脉以西。东部的例外是匹兹堡,由于其工业设施,匹兹堡的空气质量历来很差。尽管如此,该市一直在积极作为,并在今年的研究中达到了有史以来的最低水平。

 

Wildfires — which are burning hotter, faster and longer — are contributing to an increase in air pollution across the United States. The fires fill the air with particulate matter, made up of ash, soot, dust and more.

野火燃烧的温度更高、速度更快、持续时间更长,导致美国各地空气污染加剧。火灾使空气中充满了颗粒物,这些颗粒物由灰烬、煤烟、灰尘等组成。

 

California on the other hand, topped the pollution charts. Fresno, Calif., unseated Fairbanks, Alaska, as the city with the worst short-term particulate matter pollution. A little more than 200 miles south, Los Angeles was dubbed the city with the worst ozone levels in the country, as it has reigned for all but one year since the study has been conducted. California also has 11 of the top 25 polluted cities.

另一方面,加利福尼亚州在污染排行榜上高居榜首。加利福尼亚州弗雷斯诺取代阿拉斯加州费尔班克斯成为短期颗粒物污染最严重的城市。在南部200英里多一点的地方,洛杉矶被称为全国臭氧水平最差的城市,因为自该研究开展以来,它几乎统治了排行榜一年。在25个污染最严重的城市中,加州也有11个。

 

The Environmental Protection Agency monitors six air pollutants — particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and ozone — as part of the Clean Air Act. The State of the Air report only focuses on two: particulate matter and ozone. It measures the daily and long-term levels of particulate matter and long-term ozone levels.

作为空气净化行动的一部分,环境保护局监测六种空气污染物——颗粒物、氮氧化物、二氧化硫、一氧化碳、铅和臭氧。空气状况报告只关注两个方面:颗粒物和臭氧。它测量颗粒物的日常和长期水平以及臭氧的长期水平。

 

Ozone makes up Earth's stratosphere and protects the planet from ultraviolet rays beaming down from the sun. Unfortunately, it's also toxic. According to the EPA, ozone can damage the lungs when it's inhaled. Lower levels aggravate respiratory diseases such as asthma. It can also cause chest pain, coughing and shortness of breath in otherwise healthy people.

臭氧构成了地球的平流层,保护地球免受太阳紫外线的照射。不幸的是,它也是有毒的。根据环境保护局(EPA)的说法,吸入臭氧会损害肺部。低浓度会加重哮喘等呼吸系统疾病。在其他健康人群中,它还会导致胸痛、咳嗽和呼吸短促。

 

Fortunately, ozone levels across the country have been on the decline for the past four years. But more than 122 million Americans live in counties with failing ozone grades, the study found.

幸运的是,过去四年来,全国各地的臭氧水平一直在下降。但研究发现,超过1.22亿美国人生活在臭氧等级不达标的县。

 

People of color were nearly four times more likely to live in a county with poor air quality compared to white people.

有色人种居住在空气质量差的县的可能性几乎是白人的四倍。

 

"People of color were 61% more likely than white people to live in a county with a failing grade for at least one pollutant, and 3.6 times as likely to live in a county with failing grades for all three pollutants," the report said.

报告称:“有色人种居住在至少一种污染物不合格郡的可能性比白人高61%,居住在三种污染物均不合格郡的可能性是白人的3.6倍。”。

 

On the flip side, people seeking pollutant-free air should more or less look to the East, where 14 of the top 25 cleanest cities lie, according to the study. Cheyenne, Wyo., was crowned the cleanest U.S. city, followed by Wilmington, N.C., and Honolulu.

另一方面,研究表明,寻求无污染空气的人们或多或少应该向东方看,25个最清洁城市中有14个位于那里。怀俄明州的夏延被冠以美国最清洁的城市,其次是北卡罗来纳州的威尔明顿和檀香山。


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