【雅思】4.13大陆雅思大作文8分范文及解析:犯罪由什么引起

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大作文题目


Some think most crime is the result of circumstances (eg. poverty and other social problems). Others believe that most crime is caused by people who are bad by nature. Discuss both views and give your opinion.



题目大意


有些人认为大多数犯罪是环境造成的(例如贫困和其他社会问题)。另一些人则认为,大多数犯罪都是由本性恶劣的人造成的。讨论两种观点并给出你的意见。



思路解析


这是一道双边类大作文,讨论的是犯罪是由什么因素引发的。双边类大作文,需要对每个观点分别表达同意或反对,最终的结论就是我的立场,可以是中立(双方都同意或都反对),也可以是单边支持某一方立场。审题时候注意两点,一是题目中提到了“贫困”,那么在论证中应当提及,二是双方观点并不冲突,因此论证上从“同意两边”角度切入更容易。


首先来看环境引发犯罪的观点,有三方面。

一是贫困和经济困难可能引发大量犯罪。当人们面临生活无法维持,无法满足基本生活需求时,他们可能会诉诸于偷窃或其他非法手段来获得所需。

二是教育水平低下增加了犯罪的可能性。教育给人培养人们的工作能力、思考能力并提高人们对于道德和法律的认知,接受过教育的人往往更容易找到工作获取正当收入,或能遵守社会规则,反之缺乏教育的人群容易因为找不到合法的工作机会而走向犯罪。

三是社会不公和歧视促进了犯罪行为。在社会不公和歧视普遍存在的环境下,某些群体可能会感到被边缘化或是个人利益严重受损,从而选择通过犯罪来反抗社会,表达他们的不满和绝望。


再来看个人天性导致犯罪的观点,有两方面。

一是有些人天生就有更强的犯罪倾向。生物心理学研究表明,某些人可能因为遗传因素或大脑结构的差异而更容易表现出攻击性和冲动性,这使得他们更可能犯罪。

二是个人道德和价值观的缺失导致的犯罪。即使在相同的贫困环境中,有些人选择遵守法律,而有些人则选择犯罪。同时,很多经济条件良好甚至富裕的个体也会犯罪,这些犯罪行为往往源于个人的自私、贪婪或对权力的追求。因此,个人的道德观和价值观对其行为有重大影响,缺乏良好价值观更可能导致个人选择犯罪。



高分范文示例


There is widespread agreement that "crime is an ever-present condition, akin to sickness, disease, and death." In criminology, understanding why individuals commit crimes is crucial in the ongoing debate on how to manage and prevent criminal activities. I personally believe that both environmental factors and innate predispositions play significant roles in shaping individuals' violent and aggressive behaviors.


It is often argued that mental illness, abnormal brain chemistry, and even evolutionary rewards for aggressive criminal conduct are among the explanations for crime. As humans, our genetic makeup—comprising genes, cells, and other biological components—varies across individuals, predisposing some to criminality. The role of heredity and genetics in influencing a person's overall character can explain why some individuals exhibit violent and aggressive behaviors, while others are completely passive and non-violent.


While crimes vary in their nature, most are the result of certain risk factors, such as poverty, unemployment, or other less obvious causes like the influence of violence in the family or in movies. Individuals develop the motivation and skills necessary for committing crimes through their associations and the environments in which they are immersed. In situations where people experience intense stress and constant exposure to violent behavior, they are more likely to resort to crime. For example, a neighborhood characterized by deteriorating social structures, evident in vacant and vandalized buildings and high unemployment rates, is likely to experience elevated crime rates.


In conclusion, although both biological factors and environmental backgrounds have been demonstrated to shape individuals into criminals, it remains baseless to assert which factor exerts a greater influence.



相关词汇和语法结构



widespread agreement   广泛一致

ever-present condition   永恒存在的状况

ongoing debate   持续的辩论

environment and nature   环境和天性

violent and aggressive behaviors   暴力和侵略行为

bad brain chemistry   不良的大脑化学作用

evolutionary rewards   进化奖励

predisposing people to   使人倾向于

heredity and genetics   遗传和基因

risk factors   风险因素

motivation to commit crime   犯罪动机

fraying social structures   破败的社会结构

vacant and vandalized buildings   空置和被破坏的建筑

high unemployment rates   高失业率

elevated crime rates   提高的犯罪率

biological factors   生物学因素

environmental backgrounds   环境背景

remains baseless to assert   仍无根据地声称










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