【托福】干货! 托福写作提分利器—巧用让步段

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点击次数:192 更新时间:2020年11月26日17:32:10 打印此页 关闭

让步是一种以退为进的思维,即承认自己的观点存在一定的缺陷或是对方的观点存在一定的合理性,但归根结底还是自己的观点更加合理。在托福独立写作中运用让步思维可以增强文章的说服力,有助于提升写作分数。然而,很多同学没有正确掌握让步段的写作思路和技巧,强行凑字数, 往往而导致文章质量下降引起扣分。如何才能写好托福写作中的让步段?来看本文讲解的具体写法步骤。

 

1)写出反方观点

这一步大多数同学都做得不错,但是在提出反方观点之前,可再加上一些连接词,例如admittedly, nevertheless等等。还拿之前拿到题目做例子,For further career success, is relate well to other people more important than studying hard at school? 总观点是同意,让步段写学习好也挺重要的。第一步引出反方观点时,应写:Admittedly, acquiring an excellent GPA is one significant proof of your ability, for "study" is one of the major tasks that students are supposed to fulfill in school.

 

2)进行一定程度的削弱

这是大多数同学会忽略的一步。很多同学在写让步段的时候,喜欢跳过第二步,直接重申自己的观点,然而这样的写法会显得逻辑上牵强,行文也显得生硬。因此,在提出反方观点时要进行一定的削弱。例如在写完上文那句话之后,应加上:However, the outstanding scores only prove the intelligence of the student, while the EQ, largely reflected by how well you relate with others, plays an utmost significant role in the future career success.

 

3)重申自己的观点

这一步非常重要,因为让步段的提出仅仅是小插曲,重要的还是自己的观点。切不可写了让步段,就忘了自己的立场,那样就是得不偿失了。因此,在写完上面两句话之后,需要再加上一句,therefore, I still hold the opinion that relate well with others is more important than acquiring high scores in school.

 

高分作文往往很注重使用让步段,举一个具体例子,在《新托福考试官方指南》中有一篇独立写作的满分范文,该范文对应的写作题目如下:“Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Always telling the truth is the most important consideration in any relationship.”这篇范文的观点是:诚实是人际关系中最重要的考虑因素,不诚实则会毁坏信任关系。文章总共有五段,前面的几个段落论证了诚实的重要性,而在第五段的开头,作者写道:“Although I would like to see altruistic, understanding, thoughtful and loyal behavior from people, an instance of the opposite of these behaviors would not upset me as much as dishonesty would. Among all the possible behaviors, dishonesty is the only one for me that terminates how I feel about a persons reliability.”这样的写法就是让步:首先承认其他方面的个人品质也很重要,然后削弱其他品质的重要性,回归中心论点:诚实比其他品质更重要。

在范文后面的Raters Comments部分,有这样一句点评:“The writer then effectively develops an argument that unlike other negative behaviors, dishonesty or unwillingness to fully disclose some bad action cannot be forgiven and can be the most important factor in destroying a relationship.”由此可以看出,评分人认为这样的让步内容是有效论证的体现。

针对同样一道题目,《新托福考试官方指南》中提供的4分范文也用到了让步段。这篇范文的立场也是“诚实是人际关系中最重要的考虑因素”。文章总共有三段,在第三段的第二句作者写道:“Some may argue that lying once or another will not interfere anything and it is part of a relation, but I strongly disagree, the most important thing is the true, even if it is to determine the end of a relation, it must be told.(注:范文存在个别语法错误,此处保留)作者在文章的前两段论证了诚实的重要性,然后在最后一段用“Some may argue that …”的句型提出让步,接着进行削弱和反驳,重新回到中心论点:诚实最重要。

在范文之后的Raters Comments中,评分人这样评价:“It clearly develops reasons why lying is a bad thing, with a first paragraph that introduces the writers position (truth is the basis for everything), a hypothetical story in paragraph 2, and a final paragraph that entertains and quickly dismisses a possible counterargument. All this amounts to solid development of the idea.”划线部分表明,评分人认为这篇范文在最后一段考虑并迅速反驳了一个可能的反方观点(也就是让步),这也是构成充分论证的一个重要部分。由此可见,让步思维在托福写作中极为重要,运用得当便可助考生夺得高分!

 

以上就是托福写作让步段的讲解,希望大家能够认真学习,掌握这门秘密武器,为作文增光添彩。

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